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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

THE UNITED STATES.
463
In some cases a lower base may be specified, while with non-Bessemer ores it is higher.
The freight rates on the lakes vary. A vessel may be chartered for a season or for a definite amount at a "contract rate/' or the ore may be shipped on the best bargain that can be made at the moment—what is known as a "wild rate." In the long run the two come out about the same; thus in the ten years from 1890 to 1900 the average contract rate from the head of the lakes was 90-| cents per ton and the wild rate 90 cents. In 1887 the wild rates were $2.23 and the contract rates $2.00, but in 1900 the average charter was $1.25. These figures are for the full journey from the head of the lakes, Duluth or Two Harbors, the rate being lower for lesser distances; for instance, the average contract rate from Marquette for the last ten years has been 85 cents and for Escanaba 67£ cents. A certain amount is shipped all the way by rail, but this constitutes only 2 per cent, of the whole.
The ores of the Vermilion range are shipped from Two Harbors, the rail transportation being from 70 to 95 miles. The Mesabi deposits send their product by railroad to Duluth and Two Harbors, the distance being from 75 to 100 miles. The Menominee ores are all shipped from Escanaba and Gladstone, the distance hauled being from 40 to 92 miles. The Gogebic ores are mostly
TABLE XXII-M. Movement of Lake Superior Ore.
	1897	1900	1904
Mesabi ......................	4.280,873	7,809,535	12,156,008
Menominee .................	1,937,013	3,261,221	3,074,848
Marcniette. . ................	2,715,035	3,457,522	2,843 703
Grogebic ............... . .....	2,258,236	2,875,295	2,398,287
Vermilion ..................	1,278,481	1,655 820	1,282,513
Iron Ridge ..................			67,480
			
Total ....................	12,469,638	19,059,393	21,822,839
			
Dulutli...' ...................	2,376,064	3,888,986	4,649,611
Two Harbors. . .............	2,651,465	4,007,294	4,566,542
Escanaba ...................	2,302,121	3,436,734	3,644,267
Superior ....................	531,825	1,532,899	4,i69,990
Asnland ....................	2,067,637	2,633,687	2,288,400
Marquette .................	1,945,519	2,661,861	1,907,301
	341,014	418,854	653
All Rail .....................	253,993	489,078	596,175
			
Total ....................	12,469,638	19,059,393	21,822,839